Making or requesting a change is not an easy process. In fact, it has important planning implications and will impact the wider community, as it «changes the way land can be used or developed throughout the neighborhood.» Amending most planning plans is also a rigorous process that often requires higher approval from the government or city council. However, in some less established planning processes or structures, a change may be used more often to achieve a planning outcome. The need for local planning laws and adaptation of plumbing and building codes; The difficulty of predicting the magnitude of these changes and the frequency with which extreme events occur reinforces the need for a fundamental change in our management of adaptation to hydrometeorological risks (EEA, 2004). According to recent European studies, the predicted effects of flooding in Europe will increase significantly in the coming decades. It is estimated that between 250,000 and 400,000 people will be affected by floods each year by 2080, and the expected annual damage from floods will be between €7.7 billion and €15 billion. These values are more than twice as high as in the 1961-1990 period (Ciscar 2009). To date, very little work has been done to include cascading or joint effects (also known as domino effects) in the analysis of future impacts of environmental change on hydrometeorological hazards. Exposure to threatened elements also increases, and with it the risk of natural hazards. Land-use changes will result from technological, socio-economic, political and global environmental changes.
The nature and pace of change will depend heavily on political decisions. Many environmental problems are caused by unplanned urban expansions. By 2050, about 70% of the population will live in urban areas, compared to 90% or more in some countries. Some of the drivers of change in the urban environment are the global economy, cross-border transport networks, profound social, economic and demographic changes, and differences in national planning laws. Since the degree of uncertainty of the components used in the risk equation (hazard, vulnerability and quantification of exposed risk elements) is very high, the analysis of changes in future risks should account for these uncertainties in a probabilistic manner. Development of zoning regulations in Ahmedabad, India In Ahmedabad, India, zoning was first established in the development plan drawn up in 1954 and approved in 1965. It was based on the Bombay Town Planning Act (1954), which for the first time allowed the creation of a development plan to manage the growth of urban areas. The previous Bombay Town Planning Act (1915) allowed the creation of urban plans only to facilitate the improvement of existing urban areas. Zoning is included in development by-laws developed as part of the Comprehensive Urban Development Area (UDA) Development Plan. The UDA is defined in accordance with the Gujarat Town Planning and Development Act 1970 (GTPUDA). Under this law, an urban development authority will be established for a UDA, which is generally higher than the city`s jurisdiction. The Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority is responsible for the Ahmedabad Development Area (1,866 square kilometers), which is much larger than the city`s area (464 square kilometers).
According to GTPUDA, the development plan for each UDA will be updated every 10 years. In total, more than 20 areas are designated in the development plan. However, most urban development areas are less than one in five areas. The walled area includes the Old City of Ahmedabad. The Gamtal area includes various urban villages that are now part of the Ahmedabad metropolitan area. The general fabric of the city falls under zones R1 or R2, which are mixed residential areas. R3 is a more restrictive residential area, usually located on the outskirts of the city, where higher development intensity is not encouraged. The development of the city is mainly concentrated in areas R1 and R2. In these areas, the base area index (TFR) is 1.8 or 1.8. 1.2 – with the option to purchase an additional 50% basic ISP. This results in a maximum allowable TFR of 2.7 in zone R1 and 1.8 in zone R2. Until the most recent development plan, the height restriction for development was 40 meters.
With the new development plan, this maximum height has been increased to 70 meters for plots located on 40-meter-wide streets and on all plots in the overlay area of the central business district. With the new 2021 Global Development Plan, overlapping areas have been introduced.