A successful candidate may practise as a lawyer after being sworn in as a judicial officer; In most states, this means they can start filing briefs and act as an attorney in any court or appellate court in the state. Upon admission, a new attorney receives a certificate of admission, usually from the state`s highest court, and a membership card certifying admission. In other jurisdictions, such as the District of Columbia, new admissions must attend a special session of the court in person to take the oath of admission in open court; You cannot take an oath before an available judge or notary. If all the requirements are met, a lawyer must indeed be admitted. The mechanics are very different. In California, for example, the authorized person simply takes an oath before a state judge or notary, who then co-signs the admission form. Upon receipt of the signed form, the California State Bar Association will add new applicants for admission to a list of recommended candidates for admission to the bar, which will be automatically ratified by the California Supreme Court at its next regular weekly conference. Then, all members of the list are added to the official list of lawyers. The state bar also holds large-scale formal admissions ceremonies in conjunction with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and federal district courts, usually in the same convention centers where new admissions have passed the bar exam, but these are optional.
A JD diploma is not required to sit on the Chamber of Patent Attorneys. Lawyers who pass the patent attorney examination may be called patent attorneys (the rules of professional conduct prohibit lawyers from using the title «patent attorney» unless they are admitted to practice before the USPTO). While patent attorneys have a relevant four-year degree and many have a technical degree, patent attorneys do not need to be patent attorneys, although some are. On the other hand, non-lawyers who pass the Chamber of Patent Attorneys are called «patent attorneys». Patent attorneys cannot pose as accredited attorneys. Category C candidates may provide proof of successful completion of the Fundamentals of Engineering exam as proof of technical training. You must also have a bachelor`s degree. Although admission requirements allow applicants to replace technical training with proof of technical experience, this is rarely done in practice. Alabama, California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, West Virginia, and Tennessee allow individuals to take the bar exam after graduating from law schools approved by government agencies but not accredited by the American Bar Association.
New York State has special provisions for internationally trained individuals at the common law level, with most law graduates qualified to write the bar exam and be admitted to the bar upon successful completion.  But in some states (e.g., Arizona), you are not allowed to take the bar exam unless your law school is accredited by the ABA, and this requirement has withstood constitutional attacks: for example, law school graduates without ABA accreditation are not allowed to serve for the Arizona Bar Association, even if they can pass the bar in other states. In a court martial, the defendant always has a JAG Corps defense attorney at no cost to the defendant, but he also has the right to hire a private civil attorney at his own expense. The civil lawyer must be a member of a federal bar association and a state bar association or otherwise admitted by a recognized licensing authority to practice law and be sufficiently familiar by the military judge with the criminal law applicable in courts martial.  Individuals who wish to «pursue» patent applications (i.e. represent clients in obtaining a patent) must first pass the USPTO registration examination, often referred to as the «Patent Attorneys Chamber». For detailed information on requesting a review of the registration, see the USPTO General Requirements Bulletin.  Although only registered patent attorneys or patent attorneys can file patent applications with the USPTO, it is not necessary to pass the patent freeze to advise clients on patent infringement, litigate patent issues in court, or pursue trademark applications.